The visual components of Color, Form, Line, Shape, Space, Texture and Value
Line is the first most basic element of design used in art. Line is an element of art defined by a point moving in space.
A line is the stroke of a pencil or pen in drawing, while it’s any two connected points in graphic design. Lines are useful for dividing space and drawing the eye to a specific location. Any image that consists of distinct straight or curved lines placed generally against a plain background, without gradations in shade or color to represent two-dimensional or three-dimensional objects is a line drawing or Line Art.
Basically, a line essentially captures the essence and the shape of an object. An artist creates the illusion of two or three-dimensional spaces, descriptive, implied or abstract images by drawing lines on paper.
Shape is an element of art that is two-dimensional, flat, limited to height and width.
Everything is ultimately a shape. Refined or organic, shapes add interest to an image though defined by boundaries, such as a line or color. They are often used to emphasize a theme of art in terms with the various elements of design that are creating shapes and how those shapes are interacting with each other.
There are many shapes, viz. geometric like circle, oval, square, rectangle, diamond, triangle, pentagon, hexagon, octagon, etc.
Form is an element of art that is three-dimensional and encloses volume. It encloses space, like a shape that not only has length and width, but also has depth like in a cube, a sphere, a pyramid, or a cylinder. Form can be either geometric or also free flowing.
"Form follows function" is the principle that the form art should be based on its intent and purpose. Whether the design is functional, decorative, or alluded to an object, Form and Function explores the relationship between the form of art and its function or purpose.
A form is an artist's way of using elements of art, principles of design, and media.
Value is incredibly an important element of art. We see and understand objects because of how dark or light they are.
Value deals with the lightness or darkness of a color. White is the lightest value and black is the darkest. The value halfway between these extremes is called middle gray.
Tone in an artistic context refers to the light and dark values used to render a realistic object, or to create an abstract composition. When using pastel, often areas of pigment on a colored paper can be used to define light and dark, while leaving the bare support to show through as the mid-tone.
Space is an element of art by which a sense of depth is achieved in a work of art.
Space defines positive and negative areas in a design. Besides creating shapes to define an image, there is something called negative space.
Negative space is one of the most usually misunderstood and underutilized aspect of designing. The part of an image that is left blank, whatever the background color, also helps to create an overall image. Therefore, using negative space equally well to enhance the created shapes as you would any other element, adds overall interest to that image.
Color is the element of art that is produced when light, striking an object, is reflected back to the eye. Color is made up of three properties, viz. hue, value and intensity.
• Hue simply means the name of color like red, yellow, blue, green, purple, orange, etc.
• Value is a hue’s lightness and darkness, i.e. a color’s value changes when white or black is added.
• Intensity is the vividness of the color, its purity and quality of brightness, i.e. high intensity equals to color being strong and bright, while low intensity equals to color being faint and dull.
Color is one of the most obvious elements of design, wherein it can stand alone, as a background, or be applied to other elements, like lines, shapes, textures or typography. Color creates a mood and can tell a story. Every color says something different and its combinations can alter that impression further.
Texture is an element of art that refers to the way things feel or look as they might feel if touched.
Even if it’s not touched, it’s counter-intuitive to think about that texture visually. Designing relies on the look and impression of texture for it can create a more three-dimensional appearance on a two-dimensional surface. It also helps build an immersive world.
Different types of textures can be created like that of tree bark, sand on a beach, a cloth weave, etc. through drawing, painting, or various tools available.
Now let’s take a closer look at each principle of art...